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The liver is the largest organ in the human body. Important processes occur in our lives, which is a process of energy storage, regulation of cholesterol metabolism, and neutralizing toxins / drugs that enter our bodies, so we can imagine the consequences that would arise if there is damage to the liver.

Liver Cirrhosis is a pathological condition that describes end-stage hepatic fibrosis that goes progressively characterized by distortion of the hepatic architecture and the formation of regenerative nodules (Sudoyo Aru, et al 2009)

Causes of cirrhosis include:
  • Malnutrition
  • Alcohol
  • Hepatic virus
  • Hemochromatosis (iron overload)
  • Toxic substances

Clinical Manifestations of Liver Cirrhosis
  • Enlarged liver
  • Gastric varices
  • Edema
  • Obstruction portal and ascites
  • Vitamin deficiency and anemia
  • Mental Decline
  • Nausea, vomiting, anorexia and weight loss
  • Diarrhea
  • Muscle weakness and feeling tired

Diagnostic Tests
  • Imaging exams: ultrasound liver, gall bladder, and spleen. Liver ultrasound can describe how far the damage.
  • Pathological examination: Pathological examination for signs of viral hepatitis.
  • Liver function tests: The liver function tests, we can understand how much the severity of liver cirrhosis.
  • Four indicators of hepatic fibrosis: liver fibrosis is a chronic disease. Early detection using four indicators of hepatic fibrosis, may help diagnose more quickly whether there is liver fibrosis.
  • Liver biopsy: A biopsy can indicate the presence or absence of cirrhosis of the liver.
  • Laparoscopy: direct examination that can be done in the liver, spleen, digestive organs.

Nursing Diagnosis
  1. Excess fluid volume
  2. Ineffective breathing pattern
  3. Impaired gas exchange
  4. Pain (acute / chronic)
  5. Impaired physical mobility
  6. Disturbed Body Image
  7. Risk for infection
  8. Impaired skin integrity
  9. Low Self-Esteem

Source : http://nandanursingdiagnosis.blogspot.co.id/2013/01/10-nursing-diagnosis-for-liver-disease.html
 
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