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Hypertension or High blood pressure, defined as a repeatedly elevated blood pressure exceeding 140 over 90 mmHg -- a systolic pressure above 140 or a diastolic pressure above 90.

Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) - cerebrovascular events (CVEs) and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) - and is therefore one of the most important preventable causes of premature morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends the following definitions:

Stage 1 hypertension - BP in surgery/clinic is ≥140/90 mm Hg and ABPM or HBPM is ≥135/85 mm Hg.
Stage 2 hypertension - BP in surgery/clinic is ≥160/100 mm Hg and ABPM or HBPM is ≥150/95 mm Hg.
Severe hypertension - BP in surgery/clinic is ≥180/110 mm Hg or higher.

Risk factors that cannot change include:
  • age: Older adults are at greater risk for high blood pressure.
  • gender: Women over 65 are more likely to have higher blood pressure, and men under age 45 are more likely to have high blood pressure than women.
  • race: African-Americans are more likely to have high blood pressure.
  • family history: If your direct family members (parent or sibling) have high blood pressure, you are more at risk.
Risk factors that are modifiable include:
  • being overweight
  • not exercising enough
  • eating an unhealthy diet
  • consuming excess salt
  • drinking alcohol
  • smoking
  • sleep apnea
  • stress
The test to determine high blood pressure
  • blood tests
  • urine tests
  • electrocardiogram (ECG)
  • chest X-ray
  • computed tomography (CT) scan
  • reducing the amount of salt in your diet
  • exercising and losing weight
  • beginning a smoking cessation plan
  • trying to reduce stress with some relaxation techniques

4 Sample of Nursing Diagnosis for Hypertension

1. Risk for Decreased Cardiac Output

2. Acute Pain

3. Ineffective Tissue perfusion

4. Knowledge Deficit
 
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