Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) - cerebrovascular events (CVEs) and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) - and is therefore one of the most important preventable causes of premature morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries.
Stage 1 hypertension - BP in surgery/clinic is ≥140/90 mm Hg and ABPM or HBPM is ≥135/85 mm Hg.
Stage 2 hypertension - BP in surgery/clinic is ≥160/100 mm Hg and ABPM or HBPM is ≥150/95 mm Hg.
Severe hypertension - BP in surgery/clinic is ≥180/110 mm Hg or higher.
Risk factors that cannot change include:
- age: Older adults are at greater risk for high blood pressure.
- gender: Women over 65 are more likely to have higher blood pressure, and men under age 45 are more likely to have high blood pressure than women.
- race: African-Americans are more likely to have high blood pressure.
- family history: If your direct family members (parent or sibling) have high blood pressure, you are more at risk.
- being overweight
- not exercising enough
- eating an unhealthy diet
- consuming excess salt
- drinking alcohol
- sleep apnea
- blood tests
- urine tests
- electrocardiogram (ECG)
- chest X-ray
- computed tomography (CT) scan
- reducing the amount of salt in your diet
- exercising and losing weight
- beginning a smoking cessation plan
- trying to reduce stress with some relaxation techniques
4 Sample of Nursing Diagnosis for Hypertension
1. Risk for Decreased Cardiac Output
2. Acute Pain
3. Ineffective Tissue perfusion
4. Knowledge Deficit