Anemia is a condition in which the number of red blood cells (hemoglobin) were below normal. Hemoglobin contained in red blood cells play a role in transporting oxygen from the lungs and deliver to all parts of the body. A patient is said to be anemic when the concentration of hemoglobin (Hb) in men less than 13.5 g / dL and hematocrit less than 41%, in women hemoglobin concentration of less than 11.5 g / dL or hematocrit less than 36%.
The most frequent symptoms of anemia among others, as follows:
1. Pale color of the skin
People with anemia usually clearly visible on the face and skin look pale.
2. Eyelids pale
In addition to the face, eyelids patients with anemia also look pale. This is one of the common symptoms of anemia. Examination is usually done by stretching the eyelids and see the lower eyelid color.
3. Fingertip pale
Inspection can be done by pressing the fingertip, normally when following in the press area will turn into red. However, in people with anemia, the fingertips will be white or pale.
4. Too often and easily tired
Too easily tired, but do not strenuous activity, if you feel easily tired all the time and lasts a long time you probably have anemia. This happens because the body's energy supply that is not optimal due to the shortage of red blood cells that serves as a natural means of transport in the body.
5. Irregular heart beats
Irregular heart beats, too strong and has a speed of heartbeat rhythm abnormalities. This occurs as a result of the body lacks oxygen. so irregularly beating heart. This check can only be done by a health worker.
6. Often feel nauseous
Usually patients with anemia often experience nausea in the morning. Almost the same as the signs of pregnancy. Nausea in the morning.
One of the effects of a shortage of red blood cells, the brain becomes oxygen deficiency. Causing pain in the head. Because of this anemia patients often complain of headaches.
8. Immune decline
Immune / defense system against disease anemia decreased and usually very susceptible to other diseases as a result of the weakening of the body's immune.
9. Shortness of breath
Patients with anemia often feel shortness of breath and feel breathless when doing activities, this happens due to lack of oxygen in the body, due to the lack of red blood cells.
Causes of Anemia
The most frequent cause of anemia is due to excessive bleeding, destruction of red blood cells to excess or often called hemolysis or red blood cell formation / ineffective hematopoiesis, iron deficiency, intestinal bleeding, lack of vitamin B12, folic acid deficiency, disorder bone marrow function, certain chronic diseases, such as cancer and HIV / AIDS. Can affect the production of red blood cells.
AIn addition to the factors causing anemia, also influenced by also influenced by other risk factors, such as:
- Factor of heredity.
- The lack of nutrient intake.
- Disease and intestinal disorders as well as operations related to the small intestine.
- Excessive menstrual bleeding.
- Chronic diseases such as cancer, and kidney failure.
Prevention of Anemia
For the prevention of anemia is actually very easy. As with eating foods that contain lots of iron, folic acid, vitamin b12, vitamin c. Here is an explanation on how to prevent anemia and the types of foods that can help prevent anemia, including:
1. Consumption of foods that contain lots of iron
Foods that contain lots of iron such as meat, beans, vegetables, green and others. Iron is also very important for women who are menstruating, pregnant women and children.
2. Consumption of foods that contain lots of Folic Acid
Consumption of foods that contain lots of folic acid such as bananas, dark green vegetables, nuts, oranges, cereals and others
3. Foods that contain vitamin B 12.
Can be obtained by eating meat and dairy.
4. Food and drinks that contain Vitamin C
There are so many benefits of Vitamin C, one of which can help the absorption of iron. the types of food that contain lots of vitamin C such as melon, citrus fruits, and berries. That's some way to prevent anemia naturally.
Nursing Diagnosis for Anemia
- Activity Intolerance
- Impaired oral mucous membrane
- Imbalanced Nutrition: Less than Body Requirements
- Risk for Infection
- Risk for deficient fluid volume
- Deficient Knowledge regarding condition, prognosis, treatment, self-care, prevention of crisis, and discharge needs,
- Ineffective coping
- Ineffective thermoregulation.