Human Respiratory System

The respiratory system in humans is one of the most important organ systems. Because if people do not breathe for a few minutes, then he will die. Just like any other organ system, the respiratory system in humans may also experience disruption or disorder that affects the system itself. Well, what are the diseases of the respiratory system in humans? Immediately, we see the first:

1. Pharyngitis

Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the pharynx due to an infection causing pain on swallowing food or throat feels dry. This disorder is caused by a bacterial or viral infection. The bacteria usually attack the disease is Streptococcus pharyngitis. Inflammation can also occur because of too much smoke, characterized by pain when swallowing and dryness in the throat.

2. Asthma

Asthma is a disorder of airway narrowing caused by allergies such as dust, fur, or hair. In asthma, the lungs are not able to absorb oxygen optimally. Asthma is characterized by a rigid contraction of bronchial that causes difficulty breathing. Asthma is known as wheezing caused by bronchial hypersensitivity (called Bronchial asthma) against foreign substances in the air. Asthma is a major airway narrowing in the lungs. The disorder is not contagious and is genetic or congenital person from birth. This disorder can also recur if the ambient temperature is low enough or cold state, dirty air, allergies, and stress (psychological distress).

Nearly half of the patients got asthma, due to allergies or respiratory system is too sensitive to dust, medicine, food, and drinks. Unhealthy lifestyle also influence the onset of asthma, such as smoking and stress.

Symptoms of asthma include:
  • Breath sounds; ngiiik ... ngiiik.
  • Experiencing shortness of breath so that breathing with wheezing.
  • Shortness of breath, usually only occurs when exercising.
  • body looks tired and listless and lackluster.
  • Tightness and heaviness in the chest.
  • Difficult to sleep well.
  • Cough only at night and cold weather.
  • Prone to allergies such as cold air, dust, or certain types of food.
  • Severe asthma attacks patients can not speak because of the difficulty in breathing.
  • Easily tired when doing physical activity.

If these symptoms appear, the person suffering from asthma may have trouble breathing due to the contraction of the muscles of the bronchi, which results in narrowing of the respiratory tract.

How to prevent asthma:
  • Do not stay in place that is dirty because of pollution.
  • Do not keep animals whose fur many and subtle. For example, cats, rabbits, and so on
  • Always wear a sweater and scarf neck when the weather is cold.
  • Do not have too much to do sports that require a deep breath when the breath is not strong.
Approximately 50% of patients with asthma do alternative medicine therapies, but not enough evidence to ensure that these therapies effective in treating asthma.

3. Influenza (Flu)

Influenza is caused by influenza viruses. Symptoms include runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, and itchy throat. Influenza is an acute infectious disease of the respiratory tract is mainly characterized by fever, shivering, muscle pain, headache and often accompanied by a runny nose, sore throat and cough with phlegm not. Long illness lasts between 2-7 days and usually resolves itself.

Influenza is a disease that most commonly affects the respiratory system in humans worldwide. Flu caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae. Common symptoms of the flu are chills, fever, watery eyes, nasal congestion severe headache, cough, and pain in some parts of the body.

The cause of influenza is a virus that infects the upper respiratory tract tissues. There are 3 types of viruses are known, namely A, B, and C. Type A viruses will cause severe symptoms, spread rapidly and can cause infection in a country or region (pandemic). Type B virus would cause less severe symptoms and not as fast as the virus spread virus type A. Type C only provides only mild symptoms. The difference of these viruses can be discovered through the examination of salivary fluid by using genetic tests.

Signs of unusual flu symptoms is similar to the common cold, but with higher intensity. In the case of bird flu, the symptoms can be very high fever and sudden. Agency could shivering. Flu symptoms this unusual course should be addressed immediately by the medical.

Symptoms in patients with influenza, most patients complained of fever, headache, muscle pain, cough, runny nose, sometimes accompanied by pain on swallowing and hoarse.

The symptoms above can occur a few days and disappear on its own. The body has the ability to eliminate harmful viruses and bacteria through the body's defense system with white blood cells, but this would be a good defense if good body condition anyway. After the destruction of harmful viruses and bacteria the body needs time to repair the damage that has occurred so that it will feel limp and weak.

4. Sinusitis

Sinusitis is an inflammatory disease in the upper nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses. Sinusitis disease caused by infection with bacteria, fungi, viruses, decreased immunity, flu, stress, addiction, and infections of the teeth.

Here are some of the symptoms that can be recognized in a person suffering from sinusitis:
  • Nasal congestion and tingling or itching.
  • There are odors in the nose when breathing.
  • Frequent sneezing.
  • Issued a snot nose thick, white or yellowish.
  • Head ache as there are pressing.
Sinusistis disease can be prevented by always keep the immune system, eliminate smoking habits, and increased consumption of fruits.

5. Bronchitis

Bronchitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane in the form of the bronchial tubes. Meanwhile, pleurisy is inflammation of the pleura, the protective layer that encloses the lungs. Laryngitis is swelling of the larynx, while sinusitis is the swelling of the sinuses or nasal cavity. Inflammations can occur for many reasons, including due to infection by microorganisms. Inflammation can also occur because the body responds to a substance or a foreign object into the body, causing allergic reactions. The symptoms of inflammation in general are coughing, fever, difficulty in swallowing, and pain in the chest. Bronchitis disease can be identified by the following symptoms :
  • Cough with phlegm.
  • Often shortness of breath.
  • Prolonged flu.
  • Wheezing.
  • The body is tired.
  • Swelling of the ankles.
  • Arise redness on the face, palms, and mucous membranes.
  • Head ache.
  • Vision was blurred.

6. Emphysema

Emphysema is a lung disease that is characterized by swelling of the lungs because blood vessels intruding air. Emphysema is caused loss of elasticity of the alveoli. Emphysema can become very difficult to breathe. Patients experiencing chronic cough and shortness of breath. Cigarette smoke and the enzyme deficiency of alpha-1-antitrypsin is the cause of loss of elasticity in the lungs.

  • Decreased appetite, and weight decreased, also commonly experienced by patients with emphysema.
  • Chest tightness.
  • Chronic cough.
  • Fatigue.
  • Shortness of breath for a long time and can not be cured with medication reliever commonly used shortness of breath.
How to prevent Emphysema:
  • Patients are active smokers, quitting smoking can help prevent sufferers from this disease.
  • If emphysema has spread, quit smoking to prevent progression of the disease. Treatment is based on the symptoms that occur, whether the symptoms are mild, moderate or severe.
  • Treatment includes using inhalers, oxygen administration, drugs and sometimes surgery to relieve symptoms and prevent complications.
  • Avoiding cigarette smoke is the best way to prevent this disease. 
  • Quitting smoking is also very important.

7. Asbestosis

Asbestosis is a respiratory disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers, in which the lungs are formed extensive scarring. Asbestos is a mineral composed of silicate fibers with different chemical composition. If inhaled, asbestos fibers settle in the lungs, causing scarring. Inhaling asbestos can also cause thickening of the pleura (the membrane that lines the lungs).

Diseases caused by asbestosis include:

8. Tuberculosis (TB)

Tuberculosis is a disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These bacteria can attack all organs of the human body, but are most often attacked are the lungs (hence in general is often referred to as lung disease / TB lungs). These bacteria attack the lungs so that on the inside of the alveoli are pimple. This disease causes the oxygen diffusion process is interrupted by a small spots on the walls of the alveoli. If the lungs are attacked widespread, the cells die and lungs shrink. As a result, people with panting breath.

This situation causes:
  • Increased work of breathing muscle portion, which serves for the exchange of the lungs.
  • Reduce vital capacity and respiratory capacity.
  • Reduce respiratory membrane surface area, which will increase the thickness of the respiratory membrane, causing a decrease in lung diffusion capacity.
The symptoms of pulmonary TB disease are: coughing for three weeks or more, in the sputum never found blood spots, fever for a month more, especially in the afternoon and evening, decreased appetite and weight loss, frequent sweating at night, and shortness of breath .

The best prevention of tuberculosis is to keep the environment clean and healthy. Poor air quality exacerbates tuberculosis. Patients with tuberculosis should also be kept away from children.

9. Pneumonia

Pneumonia or Logensteking namely lung inflammatory diseases caused by Diplococcus pneumoniae. Due to inflammation of the alveoli filled with pus and mucus making it difficult oxygen diffuses reach the blood. Pneumonia is an infection or inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites in which the pulmonary alveoli (alveoli) responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere to be "inflamed" and filled with fluid. Pneumonia can also be caused by chemical or physical irritation of the lungs or as a result of other diseases, such as lung cancer or drinking too much alcohol. But the most common cause is an attack bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus.

Pneumonia disease often affects mostly older people (elderly) and those with chronic illnesses as a result of damage to the immune system, but pneumonia also can attack bodied young people.

10. Lung Cancer

This disease is one of the most dangerous. Cancer cells in the lungs continue to grow uncontrolled. This disease over time can affect the entire body. One trigger lung cancer is smoking. Smoking can lead to lung cancer and lung damage.

Common symptoms of lung cancer patients:
  • Swelling in the face or neck.
  • Shortness of breath and short.
  • Loss of appetite and weight loss.
  • Chronic fatigue.
  • Bloody sputum, berubaha color and more.
  • Headache, pain with no apparent cause.
  • Persistent cough or become great.
  • Hoarseness / husky.

11. SARS

SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome). The virus infects the respiratory tract. Symptoms vary depending on each patient, for example, dizziness, vomiting, accompanied by high fever and coughing. Meanwhile, the disorder is not caused by infection include rhinitis, ie, inflammation of the mucous membranes (mucosa) of the nasal cavity. The amount of mucus secreted, resulting in inflammation. Typically, occurs due to allergy to an object, such as dust or animal fur.

12. Rhinitis

Rhinitis is an inflammation of the nasal cavity as a result of infection by viruses, eg influenza virus. Rhinitis can also occur due to an allergic reaction to changes in the weather, pollen, and dust. Increased mucus production.

13. Laryngitis

Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx. Patients hoarse or lose sound. The reason is partly due to infection, too much smoking, drinking alcohol, and too much hoarse.

14. Tonsillitis

Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils that appear swollen, reddish, feels soft and raised white spots on its surface. Tonsillitis is usually caused by viral and bacterial infections. If an infection through oral or respiratory tract, tonsils to swell (inflammation) that can cause narrowing of the airways.

The symptoms of tonsillitis are as follows:
  • Sore throat.
  • Feels pain when swallowing.
  • The body has a high fever.
  • Frequent vomiting Having trouble while breathing.
  • Snore.
  • Decreased appetite.
  • Arise odor in the mouth.
  • There is pain in the surrounding muscles.

15. Hypoxia

Hypoxia is respiratory distress syndrome in which the conditions of oxygen deficiency in the body tissues caused by the effect of different ketinggian.Pada fatal cases can lead to death of the cells. But on a lighter level can lead to suppression of mental activity (sometimes peaking to coma), and lower the working capacity of muscle.