- Family health at this time, the genogram, the presence of family members who suffer from upper respiratory tract infections.
- Environmental health, housing, inadequate ventilation.
- Psychosocial and cultural backgrounds, particularly for clients included a history of child growth and development.
- Debilitating diseases (AIDS, cancer).
- Continuous exposure to air pollution.
- Physical, such as grayish skin (cyanosis), sweat lost accordance decrease and increase in fever, dry cough unproductive then become productive, dyspnea, weakness and malaise.
- On palpation to an increase in body temperature 39-40°C.
- Percussion sounds overcast condition in the lung area.
- Auscultation sounds tinny and smooth wet crackles at the lung area.
- Complete blood examination found an increase in white blood cells due to pneumococcal pneumonia, Legionella pneumonia, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus and Haemophilus, and influenza and will be normal in patients with viral and mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.
- X-rays showed wide consolidation in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia, Legionella, Klebsiella and viral pneumonia and staphylococcal pneumonia infiltrates will look reddish.
- Sputum culture showed the presence of bacteria but the negative viral pneumonia.
- Blood cultures will be positive if the pneumonia obtained from hematogenous infection (Staphylococcus aureus).
- Gram positive if the infection is caused by gram- negative or gram- positive.
- Cold agglutinins and complement fixation performed for viral examination.
- Arterial blood gas analysis.
- Examination of lung function.