Malaria is a parasitic infection of red blood cells caused by a species of Plasmodium protozoa transmitted to humans through the saliva of mosquitoes (Corwin, 2000, p 125).
Malaria is an infectious disease with periodic fever, which is caused by the Plasmodium parasite and transmitted by mosquitoes similar Anopeles (Tjay & Prog, 2000).
According Harijanto (2000) there are four species of plasmodium that can cause infection, namely :
- Plasmodium vivax
- Plasmodium falciparumc.
- Plasmodium ovale.
Characteristics of Mosquitoes
According Harijanto (2000) Malaria in humans can only be transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito. More than 400 species of Anopheles in the world, only about 67 were found to contain sporozoites and can transmit malaria.
Anopheles mosquito breeding varies, there is in fresh water, brackish water and some are nested in a puddle of water on the branches of a large tree (Slamet, 2002, p 103).
Characteristics of Anopheles mosquitoes are as follows:
- Living in the tropical and sub-tropical, found living in the lowlands.
- Bite between dusk (night) and early in the morning ..
- Usually stay in the house, outside the house, and the mosquitoes like to bite humans (blood sucking).
- Flight distance of no more than 2-3 km.
- At the time of biting the back pointing upwards at an angle of 48 degrees.
- Life cycle takes ± 1 week.
- Prefer to live in a swamp area.
Nursing Diagnosis in patients with malaria based on the signs and symptoms can be described as below (Doengoes, Moorhouse and Geissler, 1999) :
1. Imbalanced Nutrition: less than body requirements related to inadequate food intake ; anorexia ; nausea / vomiting.
2. Risk for infection related to a decrease in the immune system; invasive procedures.
3. Hyperthermia related to increased metabolism, dehydration, a direct effect of circulating germs in the hypothalamus.
4. Altered tissue perfusion related to a decrease in the cellular components needed for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients in the body.
5. Knowledge Deficit: about the disease, prognosis and treatment needs related to lack of exposure / recall errors of interpretation of information, cognitive limitations.