Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli.
Pneumonia is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly other microorganisms, certain drugs and other conditions such as autoimmune diseases.
There are 3 or 4 different bacteria that are the most common causes of pneumonia. There is also a well-known group of bacteria that causes pneumonia in about 3 out of 10 cases. They are called atypicals. Other germs such as fungi, yeasts, or protozoa can sometimes also cause pneumonia.
Certain people are more likely to become ill with pneumonia:
- Adults 65 years of age or older
- Children younger than 5 years of age
- People who have underlying medical conditions (like asthma, diabetes or heart disease)
- People who smoke cigarettes.
- Cough. You will likely cough up mucus (sputum) from your lungs. Mucus may be rusty or green or tinged with blood.
- Fast breathing and feeling short of breath.
- Shaking and "teeth-chattering" chills.
- Chest pain that often feels worse when you cough or breathe in.
- Fast heartbeat.
- Feeling very tired or very weak.
- Nausea and vomiting.
Pneumonia - 7 Nursing Diagnosis
- Ineffective airway clearance related to tracheobronchial inflammation, edema formation, increased sputum production.
- Impaired gas exchange related to changes in the alveolar-capillary membrane.
- Hyperthermia related to infectious process.
- Risk for Infection related to the inadequate primary defenses (decreased cilia work, adhesions respiratory secretions), inadequate secondary defenses, chronic disease.
- Imbalance nutrition less than body requirements related to the increase in metabolic demand secondary to fever and infection process.
- Risk for Fluid volume deficit related to inadequate oral fluid intake, fluid loss is active.
- Activity intolerance related to imbalance between oxygen supply and demand, general weakness.